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Kwame Anthony Appiah – The Honor Code (2010)

Over the centuries, retired literati, returning home, created a local gentry diffused across the empire. The gentry saw knowledge of the classics, skill in poetry and essay writing, calligraphy and painting, as attributes of the men of their class. If the sword defined the English gentleman in the eighteenth century, here was a gentry whose ideal for millennia was the pen–or rather, the calligraphy brush.

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